Prof. Dr. Hans H. Gorris was invited to deliever a lecture in Fudan University.

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Photon-upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have found wide interest because they emit shortwavelength light under near-infrared (NIR, 980 nm) excitation (anti-Stokes emission), which avoids optical background interference from autofluorescence and light scattering. I will present new (nano-) analytical techniques based on UCNPs. Agarose gel electrophoresis enables the separation of UCNPs that can be detected directly in the gel by a 980-nm laser scanner. UCNP-protein conjugates were purified by agarose gel electrophoresis. Such well-defined nanoconjugates have been used as labels in lateral flow assays and upconversion-linked immunoassays (ULISAs).  Such  well-defined nanoconjugates have been used as labels in lateral flow assays and upconversion-linked immunoassays (ULISAs). A competitive ULISA allowed for the sensitive detection of the pharmaceutical diclofenac in environmental water samples (50 pg mL-1 (170 pM). UCNPs can be detected at the single nanoparticle level using a relatively simple wide-field upconversion microscope. In this way, it is possible to implement a single molecule sandwich immunoassay for the digital readout of diagnostic markers such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) with ten-fold lower limit of detection (1.2 pg mL-1 (42 fM)) compared to conventional (analog) immunoassays.